Structure of the Universe

Hans Haubold, UN Outer Space Office, Vienna International Centre, Vienna, Austria
A. M. Mathai, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada


This article is published in the Encyclopedia of Applied Physics, Vol. 23 (Page 47 - 81), 1998 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, ISBN: 3-527-29476-7


Introduction
1. Structure of the Ancient
Universe
1.1 Prehistoric Astronomy
1.2 Egypt
1.3 Mesopotamia
1.4 India and Persia
1.5 The Puranas and the Brahmapaskas
2. Macrocosmos: From
Anaximander to Einstein
2.1 Greek and Roman World
2.2 Aristotle's Universe
2.3 Copernicus's Universe
2.4 Newton's Universe
2.5 Einstein's Universe
2.6 Big Bang
2.7 Beyond the Big Bang
3. Microcosmos: From
Leucippus to Yukawa
3.1 Atomism
3.2 Atom
3.3 Electron
3.4 Atomic Nucleus and Photon
3.5 Neutron
3.6 Fundamental Particles
4. Weak, Electromagnetic, and
Strong Interactions:
Structure of the
Microcosmos
4.1 Fundamental Interactions
4.1.1 Gravitational Interaction
4.1.2 Electromagnetic Interaction
4.1.3 Weak Interaction
4.1.4 Strong Interaction
4.2 Classification of Fundamental
Particles
4.3 How Fundamental Particles
Interact
4.3.1 Graviton
4.3.2 Photon
4.3.3 Intermediate Bosons
4.3.4 Gluons
5. Gravitational Interaction:
Structure of the
Macrocosmos
5.1 Structural Elements of the
Universe
5.1.1 The Planck
Scales
5.1.2 The Universe
5.1.3 Galaxies
5.1.4 Stars
5.1.5 White Dwarfs and Neutron
Stars
5.1.6 Black Holes
5.2 Evolution of the Universe
5.3 Large-Scale Distribution of Matter
5.4 Morphology of Galaxies
5.5 Quasars
5.6 Stellar Evolution
6. Mathematics and Physics
and the Structure of the
Universe
6.1 General Relativity and
Quantum Field Theory
6.2 Macroscopic Dimension of
Space
6.3 Microscopic Dimension of
Space
Glossary
Works Cited
Further Reading